Category Archives: Context

Color Shift

COLOR SHIFT

  • Aging UV exposure may cause plastics to change color
  • Operating conditions and contaminants in the atmosphere may cause color changes

MACADAM ELLIPSE

  • Defines the color point specification of lamps
  • Guidelines for how a person can distinguish between similar colors
  • 2 step ellipse: 2 times the just noticeable difference in color

BINING

  • Measure the output of the LEDs AND sort them into various ranges, or bins, before sale, based on color and flux
  • Size and range of colors of the bins is critical to determine how close a match the LEDs will have to each other and the color variation between units
  • All supplied LEDs must fall within a 2 step macadam ellipse [lm-79 and lm-80 of IESNA]

COLOR RENDERING INDEX

  • Measure of color fidelity
  • Does not account for object color shifts that increase color saturation which can enhance visual preferences, color discrimination ability and visual clarity

COLOR QUALITY SCALE

  • Being developed by the national institute of standards and technology to be considered for the TC 1-69
  • Ability to account for the direction of object color shifts
  • Represents the overall color quality of products for all types of light sources

The Meaning of Colors

RED

  • 700nm
  • 2nd most visible color
  • Red areas perceived as moving forward
  • Lymph system and skeletal system
  • Love and aggression

ORANGE

  • 650nm
  • Pride, ambition
  • Reproductive system
  • Stimulates activity, appetite and socialization

YELLOW

  • 600nm
  • Luminous and most visible color
  • Power center- above navel
  • Mentally stimulating, activates memory, encourages communication

GREEN

  • 550nm
  • Nature, prosperity, healing, fertility
  • Heart chakra
  • Soothing, alleviates depression and anxiety, renewal and harmony

BLUE

  • 500nm
  • Sharply refracted by the eyes
  • Pushing the image back to appear receding
  • Appetite suppressant
  • Calming, aids intuition

INDIGO

  • 450nm
  • Inner self, spiritual
  • Eyes, ears, nose brain

VIOLET

  • 400nm
  • Most powerful wavelength
  • Crown chakra: head, brain, nervous system
  • Uplifting, calming, encourages creativity, meditation

WHITE

  • Purity, cleanliness
  • Aids mental clarity
  • Purification of thoughts and actions
  • Fresh beginnings

BLACK

  • Authoritative, powerful
  • Inconspicuous, mysterious evoking potential and possibility
  • Restful emptiness

BROWN

  • Stable, reliable, approachable
  • Wholesomeness
  • Connection to Earth
  • Orderliness
Blue Frog: AWA Lighting Designers project

Blue Frog: AWA Lighting Designers project

Defining Shadows and Darkness

“It is necessary to return to the point where the interplay of light and dark reveals forms, and in this way to bring richness back into architectural space. Yet, the richness and depth of darkness has disappeared from our consciousness, and the subtle nuances that light and darkness engender, their spatial resonance – these are almost forgotten. Today, when all is cast in homogenous light, I am committed to pursuing the interrelationship of light and darkness . Light, whose beauty within darkness is as of jewels that one might cup in one’s hands; light that, hollowing out darkness and piercing our bodies, blows life into ‘place’.”

– Tadao Ando (1990)

AWA Lighting Designers project: Cyber Hub

AWA Lighting Designers project: Cyber Hub

 

Impact of Temperature on Light

When fixtures and lighting systems are tested under the IEC 60598, the ambient temperature is kept close to 25 degree centigrade and 65% relative humidity. After injecting the right voltage, the fixture is kept burning for four hours. In this time the temperature rise of the various components used in the fitting would have stabilized, and the temperature rise recorded through the help of thermocouples fixed to the various parts of the fitting. From this set of data, the release of the fitting is decided.  If the fitting is found suitable for 25 deg. Ambient (Outdoor) and 35Deg. Ambient for indoor, it is cleared for sale, as the temperature in Europe never exceeds these temperatures. However, in other parts of the world, the temperatures are usually much higher.

  • Fixtures are currently tested between 20°c and 30°c which is not adequate.
  • Under the IEC 60598 [25°c, 65% RH], the fixture is lit for four hours until the temperature is stabilized.
  • If the fitting is found suitable for 25°c [outdoor] and 35°c [indoor] conditions, it is cleared for sale.
  • Europe rarely exceeds these conditions but other parts of the world do.

Impact of Humidity on Light

Some areas have almost 90% humidity through several months of the year. The humidity in the air coupled with water in the ground means that all components of a lighting system need to be addressed as a complete system to ensure proper functioning. The water/ humidity finds the weakest link in the system and creeps through to the other parts via capillary action which has an adverse impact on the functioning and life of the components.

Choice of hardware must also be informed by whether the environment is near the ocean, as the salines will then have an adverse impact on the componentry.

  • Humidity coupled with ground water means that all components of a lighting system must be addressed
  • Water finds the weakest link in the system and seeps through via capillary action
  • Alia Diwa Resort Goa:
    • Wiring processes: use of glands, mastic tapes and silicone fills essential to keep humidity and ground water out
    • Salinity has an adverse impact on the componentry.

Symbolism of Light

Apart from the philosophical connotations that light posses, it also is utilized throughout many cultures around the world as both a literal and metaphorical symbol. The Yin and Yang is one of the best examples of this concept as discussed previously, but there are many others as well. When different world religions are analyzed from a lighting perspective, it can be seen that different cultures and religions view light through its symbolic nature. Several global holidays use the symbolism of light as a marking of celebration. Following are some holidays which use light for its symbolism.

In Buddhism light is used as a symbol in the ritual of the eight offerings where it plays a central role. Apart from Buddhism, Islam also uses light as a symbol, most visually through its interpretation of ‘the lamp’ in the Qur’an;

“God is the Light of the heavens and the earth.
The Parable of His Light is as if there were a Niche and within it a Lamp
the Lamp enclosed in Glass: the glass as it were a brilliant star
Lit from a blessed Tree, an Olive, neither of the east nor of the West,
whose oil is well-nigh luminous, though fire scarce touched it
Light upon Light! God doth guide whom He will to His Light
God doth set forth Parables for men: and God doth know all things.”

Another symbol commonly used if the candlelight as a symbol of wisdom. In our physical world we see things through the medium of light. If we do not have sun or electric light, this world is so dark that we cannot see anything. In our spiritual and mental world the physical light cannot help us to see. We see only through wisdom. We may stumble many times in daily life because we lack ‘light’ and ‘wisdom’. Light in this sense can also be translated into a more eastern sensibility through the term ‘enlightenment’. Jung writes in the foreword to An Introduction to Japanese Buddhism;

“This strange perception is called Satori, and may be translated as “Enlightenment”. Suzuki says (see page 95), “Satori is the raison d’etre of Zen, and without it there is no Zen.” It should not be too difficult for the Western mind to grasp what a mystic understands by “enlightenment”, or what is known as “enlightenment” in religious parlance.”

Religion:

• When different world religions are analyzed from a lighting perspective, different cultures and religions view light for its symbolic nature. Several of the global holidays use the symbolism of light celebration. In the images that will be shared in the talk, the following are the different holidays which use light for its symbolism.

Symbols of Light:

• Obon Festival [Japan]

• Hanukkah

• Loy Krathong [Thailand]

• Diwali

• Paper Lantern Festival [Singapore]

• Christmas

• Ramadan

• Cathedral of Light 1936

• Tribute in Light, New York

• Symphony of Lights, Hong Kong

• SRBS Bridge, Dubai

Elements of Culture

As mentioned before, as the description of culture gets broader, the more accurate it becomes. The definition of culture is therefore better understood when the different variables that define it are studied. In order to get a better resolution on what culture really stands for, it is important to understand the ingredients/ elements that contribute to a culture. Some of these elements include Industrial Design, Graphic Design, Architecture, Climatic Conditions, Philosophy, Technology, Economics, Religion, Literature, Politics, Tradition, Ritual, Custom, Human Biology, Physiological Differences and Natural Resources. Lighting solutions in different cultures carry certain unifying elements, and then there are local variations that may arise due to any of the reasons listed above. To begin by establishing a metaphor for our theory of cultural lighting adaptations, we can take the example of the McDonald’s fast food chain and the many iterations of its standard menu that appear around the world.  While the McDonald’s brand and the connection to its standard American menu is maintained in the style of presentation and with the continuation of certain standard items, regional variations are frequently taken into account in order to make McDonald’s more accessible to cultures with specific dietary requirements and restrictions. 

The signature Big Mac burger, well-known to Americans since 1968, has become a veritable symbol of capitalism, used by The Economist as a gauge of purchasing power parity between currencies in what is termed the ‘Big Mac Index’. A standard Big Mac includes a three-part bun (including the middle ‘club’ bun layer), double beef patties, lettuce, cheese, pickles, onions, and special sauce.  In India, however, you will find the Maharajah Mac, or perhaps a Chicken Tikka Burger, instead.  Since local custom prohibits eating beef, both versions of the Mac here have incorporated lamb or chicken in deference to the local population.  In Pakistan, you would likely find a McChutney Burger, developed using a popular regional type of condiment.  In Japan, a Tsukimi Burger (Moon-Viewing Burger) co-opts the appeal of the yearly autumn tradition of moon-viewing and incorporates a fried egg, which resembles the full moon.  Israel’s McShawarma substitutes the commonly found shaved meat composite for beef patties and is served on local flatbread, rather than a sesame-seed bun.  In some cases, the Mac varies so much that it little resembles the American prototype, but adaptations to the local context make the product more familiar and appropriate, while retaining the brand ‘aura’ of the original.

  • Belgium:   Croque McDo
  • France:   French fries are fried potatoes
  • Hong Kong:  Rice-Fan-Tastic, McRice
  • India:   Maharajah Mac, chicken tikka burger, veg burger (no beef)
  • Israel:   McShawarma, barbecued vs. fried beef patties
  • Japan:   Tsukimi Burger (Moon-Viewing Burger!)
  • Pakistan:  McKofta, McChutney Burger
  • South Korea: McBingsoo (Korean shaved ice)
  • USA:  Super-Sizing

2020 PARADIGM SHIFT

2020 PARADIGM SHIFT – Past / Present / Future

  • Is there a Paradigm Shift Coming?
  • Changing technologies
  • New materials
  • New policies

PAST

1750 - 2000 timeline

PRESENT

  • Total Penetration of LED Components for the Global Lighting Market is 14.4% [2011]
  • $1.8 Billion/$12.5 Billion

Global Lighting Market

FUTURE

  • 140 lumens/watt 220 lumens/watt
  • Solid state lighting [SSL] will comprise 70% of the global lighting market by 2020

Conventional Lighting / LED Lighting

  • Lack of standards for many components of the led package
  • Reliability of the led package impacts future growth

Manufacturing Costs

Lighting for the Elderly

Lighting for Elderly

UNDERSTANDING THE AGING EYE

The human visual system deteriorates throughout adult life and is considered “young” until it reaches 40 years of age

As the visual system ages:

  • Less light reaches the back of the eyes
  • Pupils decrease in size
  • Lens becomes thicker, so that it absorbs more light

DESIGNING EFFECTIVE LIGHTING SYSTEMS FOR THE ELDERLY

  • AMBIENT LIGHT LEVELS: Should be increased by 50% versus those used for younger people. Ambient levels should be at least 300 lux
  • TASK LIGHTING: Light levels should be at least 1000 lux on task areas to see fine details
  • CONTRAST: The contrast of objects such as stair edges, curbs, ramps, or doorways should be increased by using paint or other techniques
  • COLOR PERCEPTION: Can be improved by using high illuminance levels and high-quality fluorescent lamps versus incandescent lamps

SLEEP QUALITY IN THE ELDERLY

Between 40-70% of people over 65 suffer from chronic sleep disturbances

Sleep disturbances result from a disruption of the body’s circadian rhythms

Scientists at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s lighting research center [LRC] have demonstrated that blue light is the most effective at stimulating the circadian system

This light must be combined with the appropriate light intensity, spatial distribution, timing and duration

LRC researchers tested a goggle like device to improve the sleep quality in older adults

A marked increase in daytime lighting levels can counteract the age-dependent losses in retinal light exposure

Sleep Quality of Youth

Light triggers critical physiological and psychological responses within human beings. The level and quality of light within the built environment has real implications on our health and wellness as we become more aware of light’s implications on our health, we have a larger repertoire with which to impact a positive benefit on our health.

SLEEP DEPRIVATION

  • During the spring, late sunset and extended daylight exposure delays bedtime in teenagers
  • Increased exposure to early evening light delays the onset of nocturnal melatonin
  • Nocturnal melatonin: hormone that indicates to the body when it’s nighttime
  • Combine the delay in sleep with early school hours means many teens experience sleep deprivation, mood changes, increased risk of obesity and under performance at school

LRC CASE STUDY AT ALGONQUIN MIDDLE SCHOOL

  • 16 students were given a daysimeter – a small device to measure an individual’s exposure to daily “circadian light”
  • Circadian light: the potential for light to suppress melatonin synthesis at night not how light stimulates the visual system
  • Experienced a delay in melatonin onset by an average 20 minutes in the spring relative to winter

RESULTS:

  • Extended daylight hours due to the seasonal change, not evening electric lighting, had the biggest impact on delayed sleeping patterns
  • The melatonin delay caused an average of 16 minute delay in reported sleep onset and a 15 minute average reduction in reported sleep duration during the spring
  • The lrc recommends that teenagers increase morning daylight exposure throughout the year and decrease evening daylight exposure during the spring months