Category Archives: Community

Color Shift

COLOR SHIFT

  • Aging UV exposure may cause plastics to change color
  • Operating conditions and contaminants in the atmosphere may cause color changes

MACADAM ELLIPSE

  • Defines the color point specification of lamps
  • Guidelines for how a person can distinguish between similar colors
  • 2 step ellipse: 2 times the just noticeable difference in color

BINING

  • Measure the output of the LEDs AND sort them into various ranges, or bins, before sale, based on color and flux
  • Size and range of colors of the bins is critical to determine how close a match the LEDs will have to each other and the color variation between units
  • All supplied LEDs must fall within a 2 step macadam ellipse [lm-79 and lm-80 of IESNA]

COLOR RENDERING INDEX

  • Measure of color fidelity
  • Does not account for object color shifts that increase color saturation which can enhance visual preferences, color discrimination ability and visual clarity

COLOR QUALITY SCALE

  • Being developed by the national institute of standards and technology to be considered for the TC 1-69
  • Ability to account for the direction of object color shifts
  • Represents the overall color quality of products for all types of light sources

Symbolism of Light

Apart from the philosophical connotations that light posses, it also is utilized throughout many cultures around the world as both a literal and metaphorical symbol. The Yin and Yang is one of the best examples of this concept as discussed previously, but there are many others as well. When different world religions are analyzed from a lighting perspective, it can be seen that different cultures and religions view light through its symbolic nature. Several global holidays use the symbolism of light as a marking of celebration. Following are some holidays which use light for its symbolism.

In Buddhism light is used as a symbol in the ritual of the eight offerings where it plays a central role. Apart from Buddhism, Islam also uses light as a symbol, most visually through its interpretation of ‘the lamp’ in the Qur’an;

“God is the Light of the heavens and the earth.
The Parable of His Light is as if there were a Niche and within it a Lamp
the Lamp enclosed in Glass: the glass as it were a brilliant star
Lit from a blessed Tree, an Olive, neither of the east nor of the West,
whose oil is well-nigh luminous, though fire scarce touched it
Light upon Light! God doth guide whom He will to His Light
God doth set forth Parables for men: and God doth know all things.”

Another symbol commonly used if the candlelight as a symbol of wisdom. In our physical world we see things through the medium of light. If we do not have sun or electric light, this world is so dark that we cannot see anything. In our spiritual and mental world the physical light cannot help us to see. We see only through wisdom. We may stumble many times in daily life because we lack ‘light’ and ‘wisdom’. Light in this sense can also be translated into a more eastern sensibility through the term ‘enlightenment’. Jung writes in the foreword to An Introduction to Japanese Buddhism;

“This strange perception is called Satori, and may be translated as “Enlightenment”. Suzuki says (see page 95), “Satori is the raison d’etre of Zen, and without it there is no Zen.” It should not be too difficult for the Western mind to grasp what a mystic understands by “enlightenment”, or what is known as “enlightenment” in religious parlance.”

Religion:

• When different world religions are analyzed from a lighting perspective, different cultures and religions view light for its symbolic nature. Several of the global holidays use the symbolism of light celebration. In the images that will be shared in the talk, the following are the different holidays which use light for its symbolism.

Symbols of Light:

• Obon Festival [Japan]

• Hanukkah

• Loy Krathong [Thailand]

• Diwali

• Paper Lantern Festival [Singapore]

• Christmas

• Ramadan

• Cathedral of Light 1936

• Tribute in Light, New York

• Symphony of Lights, Hong Kong

• SRBS Bridge, Dubai

Elements of Culture

As mentioned before, as the description of culture gets broader, the more accurate it becomes. The definition of culture is therefore better understood when the different variables that define it are studied. In order to get a better resolution on what culture really stands for, it is important to understand the ingredients/ elements that contribute to a culture. Some of these elements include Industrial Design, Graphic Design, Architecture, Climatic Conditions, Philosophy, Technology, Economics, Religion, Literature, Politics, Tradition, Ritual, Custom, Human Biology, Physiological Differences and Natural Resources. Lighting solutions in different cultures carry certain unifying elements, and then there are local variations that may arise due to any of the reasons listed above. To begin by establishing a metaphor for our theory of cultural lighting adaptations, we can take the example of the McDonald’s fast food chain and the many iterations of its standard menu that appear around the world.  While the McDonald’s brand and the connection to its standard American menu is maintained in the style of presentation and with the continuation of certain standard items, regional variations are frequently taken into account in order to make McDonald’s more accessible to cultures with specific dietary requirements and restrictions. 

The signature Big Mac burger, well-known to Americans since 1968, has become a veritable symbol of capitalism, used by The Economist as a gauge of purchasing power parity between currencies in what is termed the ‘Big Mac Index’. A standard Big Mac includes a three-part bun (including the middle ‘club’ bun layer), double beef patties, lettuce, cheese, pickles, onions, and special sauce.  In India, however, you will find the Maharajah Mac, or perhaps a Chicken Tikka Burger, instead.  Since local custom prohibits eating beef, both versions of the Mac here have incorporated lamb or chicken in deference to the local population.  In Pakistan, you would likely find a McChutney Burger, developed using a popular regional type of condiment.  In Japan, a Tsukimi Burger (Moon-Viewing Burger) co-opts the appeal of the yearly autumn tradition of moon-viewing and incorporates a fried egg, which resembles the full moon.  Israel’s McShawarma substitutes the commonly found shaved meat composite for beef patties and is served on local flatbread, rather than a sesame-seed bun.  In some cases, the Mac varies so much that it little resembles the American prototype, but adaptations to the local context make the product more familiar and appropriate, while retaining the brand ‘aura’ of the original.

  • Belgium:   Croque McDo
  • France:   French fries are fried potatoes
  • Hong Kong:  Rice-Fan-Tastic, McRice
  • India:   Maharajah Mac, chicken tikka burger, veg burger (no beef)
  • Israel:   McShawarma, barbecued vs. fried beef patties
  • Japan:   Tsukimi Burger (Moon-Viewing Burger!)
  • Pakistan:  McKofta, McChutney Burger
  • South Korea: McBingsoo (Korean shaved ice)
  • USA:  Super-Sizing

Zara Swings Record Lease Deal in Fort

Mumbai: A heritage building in the Hutatma Chowk area in south Mumbai will soon be the largest retail space in a high street for a foreign brand in the country.

In a deal touted as the biggest transaction of its kind in this segment, Zara, the Spanish clothing and accessories retailer, has taken on lease 50,000 sq ft carpet in Ismail building. Zara will pay around Rs 2.5 crore a month as lease rental to the building’s owner, Supariwala Exports. The deal works out to over Rs 450 a sq ft per month.

The four-storey Ismail building is near the ornamental Flora Fountain in the heritage Fort area. It earlier housed an office-cum-business centre. Now, the entire building will house the new Zara store.

Market sources said this is the largest high street retail space take up by an international brand ever in India.

The deal was brokered by global commercial real estate services firm, CBRE India. It refused to comment on the deal.

“This deal shows that there is a shortage of quality retail space in the country,” said market sources. “In Mumbai too there is a shortage of such space in malls,” they added.

A recent CBRE report said growing online sales will not deter retailers’ physical store expansion plans in 2016.

A study of over 150 major international brands based in Americas, Asia Pacific showed that while European countries dominate the target destinations this year, China is the top target market in Asia-Pacific region and the fourth most popular globally, with 27% of retailers looking to expand there.

Reference: The Times of India

Creating Sustainable Lighting Solutions

Bushwick Park: project by AWA Lighting Designers

Bushwick Park: project by AWA Lighting Designers

Over time, the architectural community has become increasingly invested in the realization of environmentally sustainable design, and this trend shows no sign of abating. This is a global movement. Sustainable solutions acting in a major metropolis can save building owners significantly on operational costs and cut back in vast quantities on the carbon emissions that would otherwise pervade. And, in other parts of the world, sustainable lighting solutions can make the difference between continuing one’s day, be that education, work or home tasks, or allowing darkness to swallow up needed hours of productivity. Thus, sustainability touches us all.

From low impact materials to energy efficiency, to design for reuse and recycling, there is much to be done. In this context, design connects architects with their partners and consultants, as they work toward their common goal of defining and creating structures that live up to the promise of sustainability. With architecture, technologies, materials and products all merge to create the tangible pieces of lighting design. In their collective application we see the final effects, and the success or failure of strategies and visions. How these pieces are put to use by installers and later by building occupants has tremendous importance on their visual comfort, efficiency performance, function and beauty that must be considered carefully from design inception.

Able to realize the vision of their architectural partners, lighting designers are critical members of the process. For, it is very true that one of the most efficient ways to reduce the overall carbon footprint of a structure is to amend its lighting design with smartly conceived and realized design. And, in the developing world, sustainable lighting nourishes the very essence of life. Thus, although it is just one piece of the puzzle, lighting has an outsized effect on sustainability. Understanding what is possible in this arena only serves to invigorate a practice and encourage new paradigms.

Light triggers critical physiological and psychological responses within human beings. And, since most of us spend the majority of our lives in the built environment, the level and quality of light within these buildings has real implications for our health and wellness. Luckily, today’s architect is armed with sophisticated structural options that allow for more lighting choices than at any point in architecture’s history. In today’s design world, it is no longer a question of whether to design with light in mind, but how to design with light in mind. As we become more aware of light’s implications on our physiological and psychological selves, and as technology affords a greater range of options, architects and their partners are left with an increased repertoire to draw from.  As it relates to health and wellness, the key points to consider are the quality, the quantity and the type of light being delivered within the space. 

Consider first how light comes into play in a health-oriented society. Many functions necessary for growth and well being such as breathing, sleeping, blood pressure, body temperature, appetite, moods, mental acuity, and the immune system are governed by the endocrine system, which is strongly impacted and affected by light, both natural & created by electric sources. There is also evidence suggesting that proper quantities of visually perceived light are needed for healthy functioning of the cerebral cortex, the part of the brain that controls motivation, learning, and creativity; the limbic system, the part of the brain that stores emotional impressions of the world; and the motor cortex and the brain stem, the parts of the brain that coordinate body movement and the maintenance of life.

2020 PARADIGM SHIFT

2020 PARADIGM SHIFT – Past / Present / Future

  • Is there a Paradigm Shift Coming?
  • Changing technologies
  • New materials
  • New policies

PAST

1750 - 2000 timeline

PRESENT

  • Total Penetration of LED Components for the Global Lighting Market is 14.4% [2011]
  • $1.8 Billion/$12.5 Billion

Global Lighting Market

FUTURE

  • 140 lumens/watt 220 lumens/watt
  • Solid state lighting [SSL] will comprise 70% of the global lighting market by 2020

Conventional Lighting / LED Lighting

  • Lack of standards for many components of the led package
  • Reliability of the led package impacts future growth

Manufacturing Costs

Lighting for the Elderly

Lighting for Elderly

UNDERSTANDING THE AGING EYE

The human visual system deteriorates throughout adult life and is considered “young” until it reaches 40 years of age

As the visual system ages:

  • Less light reaches the back of the eyes
  • Pupils decrease in size
  • Lens becomes thicker, so that it absorbs more light

DESIGNING EFFECTIVE LIGHTING SYSTEMS FOR THE ELDERLY

  • AMBIENT LIGHT LEVELS: Should be increased by 50% versus those used for younger people. Ambient levels should be at least 300 lux
  • TASK LIGHTING: Light levels should be at least 1000 lux on task areas to see fine details
  • CONTRAST: The contrast of objects such as stair edges, curbs, ramps, or doorways should be increased by using paint or other techniques
  • COLOR PERCEPTION: Can be improved by using high illuminance levels and high-quality fluorescent lamps versus incandescent lamps

SLEEP QUALITY IN THE ELDERLY

Between 40-70% of people over 65 suffer from chronic sleep disturbances

Sleep disturbances result from a disruption of the body’s circadian rhythms

Scientists at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s lighting research center [LRC] have demonstrated that blue light is the most effective at stimulating the circadian system

This light must be combined with the appropriate light intensity, spatial distribution, timing and duration

LRC researchers tested a goggle like device to improve the sleep quality in older adults

A marked increase in daytime lighting levels can counteract the age-dependent losses in retinal light exposure

Lighting Control Systems

A lighting control system consists of a device that controls electric lighting and devices, alone or as part of a daylight harvesting system, for a public, commercial, or residential building or property, or the theater. Lighting control systems are used for working, aesthetic, and security illumination for interior, exterior, and landscape lighting, and theater stage lighting productions. They are often part of sustainable architecture and lighting design for integrated green building energy conservation programs.

Lighting control systems, with an embedded processor or industrial computer device, usually include one or more portable or mounted keypad or touch screen console interfaces, and can include mobile phone operation. These control interfaces allow users the ability to remotely toggle (on-off) power to individual or groups of lights (and ceiling fans and other devices), operate dimmers, and pre-program space lighting levels. A major advantage of a lighting control system over conventional individual switching is the ability to control any light, group of lights, or all lights in a building from a single user interface device. Any light or device can be controlled from any location. This ability to control multiple light sources from a user device allows complex “light scenes” to be created. A room may have multiple scenes available, each one created for different activities in the room. A lighting scene can create dramatic changes in atmosphere, for a residence or the stage, by a simple button press. In landscape design, in addition to landscape lighting, fountain pumps, water spa heating, swimming pool covers, motorized gates, and outdoor fireplace ignition; can be remotely or automatically controlled.

Lighting control systems provide the ability to automatically power a device based on:

• Chronological time (time of day)

• Astronomical time (sunrise/sunset)

• Room or outdoor space occupancy (motion sensors)

• Presence of daylight (lighting costs and energy conservation,and daylight harvesting)

• Events

• Alarm conditions

• Program logic (any combination of events)

Chronological time is a specific time of day as pre-set timers use. Astronomical times includes sunrise, sunset, a specific day of the week or days in a month or year. Room occupancy might be determined with motion detectors or RFID tags, and is part of security and energy conservation programs. Artificial lighting energy use can be reduced by automatically dimming and/or switching electric lights in response to the level of daylighting, a technology known as daylight harvesting. Mobile phone operated controls can turn on a basic group of circulation—safety fixtures serving exterior—interior locations on approach, or to preheat a “water spa” in advance of returning. Events might include special fixtures for social occasions and holiday lighting, or overall brightness for cleaning. Alarm conditions can include doors opening and motion detected in a protected area, or manual “panic buttons-all lights on” for occupants sensing a possible intrusion. Program logic can tie all of the above elements together using constructs such as if-then-else statements and logical operators.

Color Mixing and Connotations

ADDITIVE MIXING

  • Mixing colors of light
  • In absence of color the result is black
  • Presence of all three primaries is white

SUBTRACTIVE MIXING

  • Mixing colors pigment / CMYK
  • Absence of color is white
  • Presence of all three primaries is black

Color Mixing

MEANING OF BLACK: DARKNESS
How the color black affects us physically and mentally?

  • Feeling inconspicuous
  • A restful emptiness
  • Mysterious evoking a sense of potential and possibility

Darkness

MEANING OF GRAY: SHADOW
How the color gray affects us physically and mentally?

  • Unsettling
  • Expectant

Stormy Sky

EIGENGRAU (GERMAN: INTRINSIC GRAY)

  • The color seen by the eye in perfect darkness
  • Eigengrau is perceived as lighter than a black object in normal
  • Lighting conditions, because contrast is more important to the
  • Visual system than absolute brightness.

Eigengrau

MEANING OF WHITE : LIGHT
HOW THE COLOR WHITE AFFECTS US MENTALLY AND PHYSICALLY?

  • Aids mental clarity
  • Encourages us to clear clutter or obstacles
  • Evokes purification of thoughts or actions
  • Enables fresh beginnings

Sunrise

 

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